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and NASDAQ (the USA), the London Stock Exchange (UK), the Tokyo Stock Exchange (Japan), and Bombay Stock Exchange (India). Most countries with capital markets have at least one.

Businesses that have gone public are subject to regulations concerning their internal governance, such as how executive officers' compensation is determined, and when and how information is disclosed to shareholders and to the public. In the United States, these regulations are primarily implemented and enforced by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Other western nations have comparable regulatory bodies. The regulations are implemented and enforced by the China Securities Regulation Commission (CSRC) in China. In Singapore, the regulatory authority is the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), and in Hong Kong, it is the Securities and Futures Commission (SFC).

The proliferation and increasing complexity of the laws governing business have forced increasing specialization in corporate law. It is not unheard of for certain kinds of corporate transactions to require a team of five to ten attorneys due to sprawling regulation. Commercial law spans general corporate law, employment and labor law, health-care law, securities law, mergers and acquisitions, tax law, employee benefit plans, food and drug regulation, intellectual property law on copyrights, patents, trademarks, telecommunications law, and financing.

Other types of capital sourcing include crowdsourcing on the Internet, venture capital, bank loans, and debentures.

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Businesses often have important " intellectual property " that needs protection from competitors for the company to stay profitable. This could require x REVOLVE Marita Maxi in Black size S also in MXS pFWeqQ86
, copyrights , trademarks , or preservation of trade secrets . Most businesses have names, logos, and similar branding techniques that could benefit from trademarking. Patents and copyrights in the United States are largely governed by federal law, while trade secrets and trademarking are mostly a matter of state law. Because of the nature of intellectual property, a business needs protection in every jurisdiction in which they are concerned about competitors. Many countries are signatories to international Womens PNaily Trousers Diesel ATAEmLjA8
concerning intellectual property, and thus companies registered in these countries are subject to national laws bound by these treaties. In order to protect trade secrets, companies may require employees to sign noncompete clauses which will impose limitations on an employee's interactions with stakeholders, and competitors.

One page proposals should address feasibility of hosting the meeting including

1. Proposed dates. 2. Transportation for international participants (both the proximity of international airports and transportation to/from the venue). 3. The conference facilities. 4. The availability and cost of hotels, including low cost options. 5. The proposed local organizing committee and their collective experience organizing international meetings. 6. Expected or promised contributions from the host organization, host country, or industrial partners towards the cost of running the meetings. 7. Financing plan, including an estimate of the registration fee to break even and an alternative profit option, with information about the organization that will benefit from the profit.

Proposals should be submitted to Mylène Bédard (Program Chair) at mylene.bedard@umontreal.ca no later than September 30, 2018.

The Board of the Bayesian Computing Section will evaluate the proposals, choose a venue, and appoint the Program Committee for Bayes Comp 2022.

Along similar lines, the next Stancon will be held in Helsinki this August. Anyone who’s interested in organizing a future Stancon, just let us know.

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on 30 June 2018, 9:35 am

Paul Alper points us to this article in Health News Review—I can’t figure out who wrote it—warning of problems with the use of surrogate outcomes for policy evaluation:

“New drug improves bone density by 40%.”

At first glance, this sounds like great news. But there’s a problem: We have no idea if this means the drug also cuts the risk of bone fractures, which is the outcome that we really care about.

So why do researchers measure bone density instead of fractures? For several reasons, it can be difficult to determine whether a treatment will result in a clear benefit for patients, such as preventing death or improving quality of life. It may take decades, for example, to see if a new osteoporosis drug ultimately reduces fractures, so researchers look for what are hopefully reliable indirect markers to measure, such as bone density.

These substitutes, which go by several names–surrogate measures, markers or endpoints–ideally can be assessed quickly and easily and are expected to correlate with a meaningful outcome.

OK, so what’s the problem? The article explains:

Not all surrogate measures have turned out to be good ones. Often a drug that influences a surrogate measure turns out to produce no meaningful result for patients, referred to as a clinical outcome.

If you replace the method or your operation object, you must also replace the property and generate KVO notifications when the operation finishes executing or is cancelled.

The key path lets clients know that the cancellation of an operation was requested. Support for cancellation is voluntary but encouraged and your own code should not have to send KVO notifications for this key path. The handling of cancellation notices in an operation is described in more detail in Responding to the Cancel Command .

Once you add an operation to a queue, the operation is out of your hands. The queue takes over and handles the scheduling of that task. However, if you decide later that you do not want to execute the operation after all—because the user pressed a cancel button in a progress panel or quit the application, for example—you can cancel the operation to prevent it from consuming CPU time needlessly. You do this by calling the method of the operation object itself or by calling the FOOTWEAR Ballet flats Carvela F325Nus
method of the class.

Canceling an operation does not immediately force it to stop what it is doing. Although respecting the value in the property is expected of all operations, your code must explicitly check the value in this property and abort as needed. The default implementation of includes checks for cancellation. For example, if you cancel an operation before its method is called, the method exits without starting the task.

You should always support cancellation semantics in any custom code you write. In particular, your main task code should periodically check the value of the property. If the property reports the value , your operation object should clean up and exit as quickly as possible. If you implement a custom method, that method should include early checks for cancellation and behave appropriately. Your custom method must be prepared to handle this type of early cancellation.

In addition to simply exiting when an operation is cancelled, it is also important that you move a cancelled operation to the appropriate final state. Specifically, if you manage the values for the and properties yourself (perhaps because you are implementing a concurrent operation), you must update those properties accordingly. Specifically, you must change the value returned by to and the value returned by to . You must make these changes even if the operation was cancelled before it started executing.

In macOS 10.6 and later, if you call the method on an operation that is in an operation queue and has unfinished dependent operations, those dependent operations are subsequently ignored. Because the operation is already cancelled, this behavior allows the queue to call the operation’s method to remove the operation from the queue without calling its method. If you call the method on an operation that is not in a queue, the operation is immediately marked as being cancelled. In each case, marking the operation as ready or finished results in the generation of the appropriate KVO notifications.

The Architect-led design build process synthesizes strategy and craft, so project outcomes cohere with client objectives. Connecting problem-solving ('brains on' design activities) to physical outcomes ('hands on' construction activities), as vernacular architecture and grand industrial crafts-led architecture have both done, the architect-led design–build approach assumes that design decisions are informed and improved by knowledge of fabrication options, tools and techniques, and that construction will more likely match a client's project objectives if it follows an overall design intention. It is not a nostalgic endeavor but a reclamation of thinking and making, a reintegration after mid-twentieth century specialization.

A design–build process led by an architect can be open, consistent, tolerant to inevitable or necessary changes during construction. Transparent to all participating consultants, it demystifies the decision-making process for clients. As co-creators, clients' input informs design as it happens, not just during the design phase. In exchange, architects leading a design build process maintain oversight of what gets built on behalf of clients, rather than ceding control to contractors.

The process and the knowledge it produces is recursive: Since subcontractors are engaged early and often in an architect-led design build project, to assess efficiencies, opportunity costs, payback rates and quality options. Their input informs overall design decisions from the outset. Cost-benefit is also a constant consideration that informs design decisions from the outset. Building performance is measured early too, so that trade offs between budget, schedule, functionality and usability can inform specification and continuous refinement of the design.

Architects engaged in this dynamic process understand and keep up to date with the potential of contemporary technology [12] and materials available to building professionals, and translate what they learn into their design work. This knowledge is fed back, not just to the specific project but can be shared to other project teams, throughout a studio, or more broadly to the profession, and can become an active source of insight in and of itself.

The architect leading the design–build project works with the client, acting as the single point of contact to a unified team of end-to-end service providers, including architects and construction trades people. The architect, as the "ALDB entity", can guarantee the price for the complete structure to cover the building owner under a single contract, determining where funds are best spent.

A single set of integrated contracts combining design and construction responsibilities, rather than two discrete contracts for each, acknowledges the interdependence of the architects' and construction trades' project responsibilities, and reduces the likelihood of disputes.

Advanced Design-Build Strategies for Architects [13] by Dorwin AJ Thomas, formerly chairman of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) Design–build Knowledge Community, includes more detail on contracts for design–build projects, and further project examples.

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